Friday, 19 July 2013

Induino R3 / R4 - An Overview

Induino R3 / R4

15-June-2015 - Update!
Induino R3 is now replaced by Induino R4. Induino R4 is the same as the R3 excepting the following 2 changes
1) Removal of the General Purpose Prototyping Area
2) Addition of a 4 Pin I2C Header in that Area to Allow Direct Plugging in of 0.96" I2C OLED Displays.

The Induino R3 is a low-cost Indian made clone / derivative of the popular Arduino Board. We wanted the beginner to start with a single board that can deliver maximum learning - our idea of value for money - and we ended up with the InduinoX series of boards in 2010. The InduinoX was an Indian made clone of the Arduino Duemilanove with a host of added features. The Induino R3 is the latest revision(2013) in this series of InduinoX boards. 

The Induino R3 is a Arduino Rev3 Clone with a ATmega328 microcontroller loaded with Arduino UNO bootloader. Rev3 compatibility ensures that the board works with the newer versions of the Arduino shields.

It has 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs(can also be used for digital I/O - so a total of 20 digital I/O's), a 16 MHz crystal oscillator, a USB connection, an ICSP header, and a reset button. Like the Duemilanove, It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller; simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with a AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started. It is completely compatible with all Arduino shields mechanically.

On top of the regular features of an Arduino Board, The Induino R3 comes with a number of on-board peripherals and interfaces.

The Following is the list of On-Board Peripherals
3 LEDS on digital pins 11,12 & 13 [for experimentation with digital outputs]

3 Push Buttons on digital pins 7,8 & 9 [for experimentation with digital inputs]

1 IR LED on digital pin 14 a.k.a anlog input pin 0 [experimentation with pulse generation & wireless communication]

1 TSOP IR Receiver on digital pin 15 a.k.a analog input pin 1 [experimentation with pulse decoding & wireless communication]

1 LDR (with potential divider) on analog input pin 3 [experimentation with analog sensors]

1 RGB Led [experimentation with analog outputs / PWM]

The Following is the list of On-Board Interfaces
  • R3 Shield Compatible Pinouts – Makes the board compatible with all the latest R3 Arduino Shields
  • Analog Sensor Interface – Plug & Program Interface compatible with a number of sensors – HC-SR04 Ultrasonic Distance Sensor, RHT03 – Humidity & Temperature Sensor, Force Sensitive Resistors & Other Variable Resistor type sensors
  • Servo Interface – Plug & Program upto 2 / 3 Servo Motors (3rd one using the Analog Sensor Interface)
  • RTC Interface – Plug & Program interface for Simple Labs RTC Breakout Board / Other Boards with similar pin mapping
  • Prototyping Area – A 8x5 dots prototyping area to add custom devices
  • FTDI Bit Bang Programming Interface

The Microcontroller
The Induino R3 comes with an ATmega 328 Microcontroller with an Arduino Uno Bootlaoder.  The Bootloader facilitates the Programming of the IC from within the Arduino IDE. (Note: A New ATmega328 will not have the bootloader and hence cannot be used directly to replace the ATmega328 on the InduinoR3 Board. You will first have to program the Bootloader into the ATmega328 before using it on the InduinoR3)

The ATmega328 has 20 programmable IOs.  It has a 32KB Flash memory (Where the compiled program is stored) of which 0.5 KB is used by the Arduino bootloader. It has 2KB SRAM (Used for run-time needs - like variables, etc) and 1KB EEPROM (can be used to store data that needs to be stored even when the microcontroller is powered off).

The Power Setup [***Important - Must Read!***]
The Induino R3 operates at 5 Volts.  It can either be powered through USB or through the DC jack provided on the Board. 

The DC Jack

The Induino R3 comes with a 7805 Voltage Regulator for Providing a 5V regulated output voltage. So,  You can power the Induino R3 using the DC Jack with an input voltage in the range of  7  - 25 Volts DC.  Note the 7805 can decently handly 500mA of current, so ensure you are not overloading it.

USB Power 

The Induino R3 can also be powered from the USB. When powered from the USB, the 7805 Voltage regulator is not used. There is a 500mA Re-settable fuse on the USB power line. This prevents the board from drawing excess current from your USB Port.
Resettable Fuse
When both the DC-Jack and the USB are used to Power, the board will be powered from the DC-Jack.

The 3.3 Volts Pin

There is a 3.3 Volt Supply Pin on the InduinoR3. Use this pin with a lot of care. This pin can provide only 50mA of current. This pin uses the FTDI's 3.3V output. Use this Only to Power Sensors / Wireless Modules. DO NOT USE FOR POWERING MOTORS / SERVOS / RELAYS / ETC. Doing so might end up frying the FTDI chip and making the board useless.

The USB Connectivity
The Induino R3 Board uses a FTDI FT232 IC for USB communication. This is a Serial to USB converter IC that helps us communicate with the microcontroller Serially using USB. The ATmega328 doesn't support USB communication directly and hence the need for a dedicated IC for the same. The FT232 IC needs drivers to work. This is also the key differentiating factor between the Arduino UNO R3 and the Induino R3. The Arduino Uno R3 uses another Atmega IC(ATmega16U2) for USB Support. 

The DIP Switches
The Induino R3 board uses DIP switches to connect the on-board devices to the respective IO's.   You can put the switch pertaining to a particular device in the Off mode and connect an external device to the IO pin directly. There are 3 DIP  switches in total - 1 x 6-Pin DIP Switch, 1 x 4-Pin DIP Switch & 1 x 2-Pin DIP Switch.

DIP Switches for the 3 LEDS & 3 Push Buttons. All are in the ON Position
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  1. I loved this detailed article. I have a suggestion though. Simply saying that "DO NOT USE 3.3V PIN FOR POWERING MOTORS / SERVOS / RELAYS / ETC." isn't good when your audience is made of learners. Tell them what will happen if they connect a motor/servo/relay to 3.3V supply pin and more importantly, WHY that will happen. Don't tell them NOT to do something, instead tell them what will happen if they do it, letting them make their own decision. :)

    1. Hi,

      Thanks for your feedback... have added a line clarifying on this.


  2. Thank you for such a detailed article...

  3. hello,
    Nice article..I am currently doing a project on home automation. I wanted to know if I can control lights, fans, TV, AC, Refrigerator with this board. If yes then please detail me on how can I connect it to the board. Also, can i connect it to the internet via wi-fi and can it be connected to android phone via bluetooth or internet. Thank you.
    Prashant Yadav

    1. Yes all of this is possible.. though A/C and Refrigerator would need high-current driver circuits. I would suggest you stay away from them till you comfortably understand what you are dealing with :)

  4. What is the Optimized battery specification to run this InduinoX Rev3 Board.?
    Say, i use your "relay board" using all the relays with it?

  5. Hi , just want to check . You are using 12 IO pins. If I put them all to OFF then all leds and extras should be disconnected?

    Then it can be can be used as an arduio, Am I correct? Many thanks

    1. yes... you are right.. even otherwise its very much an arduino :)

  6. Just thought a pinout would be helpful. Thanks

  7. Hi,
    My concern is whether the Induino R3 supports WiFi connection? Nothing is mentioned in the overview.


    1. There is no on-board wifi, however you can use wifi with the induino R3 using a wifi shield

  8. I have brought a Induino R3. can i use this to boat load a new Atmega328. the simple labs tutorial provides info on induinoX. there is a pin difference in FTDI. InduinoX has 4 pins and R3 has 6 pins. How to connect. Pls help. Txs

    1. The additional 2 pins are +5v and gnd. So now you can plug in icsp directly to icsp

  9. how to connect it with internet
    Is there any coding for that

    1. Well there are plenty of tutorials on connecting to the internet. You would need a working internet connection, Wifi / Ethernet Shield.

  10. hi prakash,

    how do i connect this induino with thhe AM2302 (DHT22) Temperature sensor? are there any videos or guide manual that helps me out?

  11. Hi,
    I would like to know the steps in burning a bootloader to a new ATMega328p-pu
    microcontroller using the Induino R3 board I have bought.

    I am facing some difficulties in following the tutorial in the Arduino site since Arduino Uno Rev3 board uses Atmega 16u2 for USB to Serial communication rather
    than FT232 RL which is present in Induino R3.

    Please make available a schematic for Induino R3 board also.
    It would be very helpful for everyone of us...

    1. Hi,
      The serial communication should not be an issue for burning bootloader. Also the Induino FT232 is based on the Arduino Duemilianove Schematic.

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    1. Hi Advait,
      The Induino and the Arduino are one and the same. What works with one will work with the other. So no need to be confused. keep doing things and you will understand. Don't get too much engrossed with the theoretical side or you might never get started.:)

    2. This comment has been removed by the author.

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  14. Hello Prakash Sir, I am Mohammad Darab from U.P .I am a student of 12th standard. but I am fond of electronics and I am reading your blog since 2 years. and few days back I bought Induino R3 extended kit combo. and i was able to run the board with the few starting examples easily . but i can not understand why DIP Switches for the 3 LEDS & 3 Push Buttons given for, can u just give me the detailed description about them?

    1. The DIP switches can help you put the connection to these buttons and leds and use the associated pins for external connections if required.

    2. so that means when i'll put them on then the leds and push buttons will work and when i'll put them off the pins will work?? am i right?

  15. Hello,
    can you please state how the IO pins should be reffered while burning the sketch on the board.

  16. what is im connecting PIR motion sensor to any of the input port in Induino R3.
    PIR motion sensor module has output 3.3V
    so what is the solution...?

  17. I am making a bluetooth rc car. will the induino support all hc 06 modules??

  18. I am getting 5V on gpio's but i need 3.3V .Is there any way on board i don't want to use level shifters.

  19. Hello Prakash,

    I bought Induino R3 and i want to use FTDI FTDI bit bang pins to program/botload in STM32 blue pill. Can you please share pin outs of FTDI bit bang pin(6 pins 2x3). I would be great help if you suggest programming stm32 using induino R3 FTDI